인간은 옷을 입는다.
RFID chip을 사람 몸안에 넣기 시작하였다.
smart clothing은 우리가 손에 들고 다니던 electronics를 interface, communication, energy supply, Data management, integrated circuits등의 시스템을 구분하여, electrospinning등의 process를 거쳐 만들어진 섬유 자체로(전기가 통할 수 있게 만들어진 섬유) 의류를 제작하는 것이다.
이런 electronics들을 옷에 일체시키려는 시도들은 전 세계적으로 끊임없이 시도되어지고 있고, smart clothing 바깥 세계의 다른 technology의 초고속 발달로, smart clothing의 범위도 빠르게 넓어지고 있다. smart clothing분야 자체는 오래전부터 현존해 왔으나, 지금 시점이 peak point로 엄청난 발전 가능성이 기대되어지고 있다.

brain storming
어떤 smart clothing을 시도하고 있는가?
사람들이 실생활에 필요한 smart clothing
5년 안에 상용화 되어질 수 있는 smart clothing
어린이들이 필요한 smart clothing
여자들에게 도움이 될 수 있는 smart clothing
남자들에게 도움이 될 수 있는 smart clothing
청각장애자들에게 도움이 될 수 있는 smart clothing
시각장애자들에게 도움이 될 수 있는 smart clothing
특정 직업을 위한 smart clothing (요리사, 그래픽 디자이너, 패션 디자이너, 주식관련업종, 의사, 변호사, 간호사...)

RFID system on smart clothing
3D graphics on smart clothing
PC on smart clothing
e-books on smart clothing
notes on smart clothing
keys on smart clothing
cell phones on smart clothing
camera on smart clothing
child monitoring system on smart clothing
multilingual translating system on smart clothing
wireless internet system on smart clothing
humidifier on smart clothing
dehumidifier on smart clothing
check up system on smart clothing for doctors
불편함을 느끼고 있는 부분이나 가지고 다니기 귀찮은 아이템(하지만 필요한)을 생각하다보면 smart clothing이 어떤 분야에서 발전될 수 있는지의 핵심 발전 가능 포인트가 보이기 시작한다.
LTE clothing plan
smart clothing 자체가 이동하며 언제나 network system을 가능하도록 하는 옷
이 옷과 컴퓨터나 핸드폰등의 device를 연결하여 인터넷 서비스를 사용

핵심 포인트 : LTE chip을 섬유에 짜는 기술
LTE(Long Term Evolution) is the trademarked project name of a high performance air interface for cellular mobile telephony. It is a project of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), operating under a named trademarked by one of the associations within the partnership, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

LTE is a step toward the 4th generation (4G) of radio technologies designed to increase the capacity and speed of mobile telephone networks. Where the current generation of mobile telecommunication networks are collectively known as 3G (for "third generation"), LTE is marketed as 4G. Ideally, LTE is a 3.9G technology since it does not fully comply with the IMT(invertible matrix) Advanced 4G requirements. Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility in the United States and several worldwide carriers announced plans, beginning in 2009, to convert their networks to LTE. The world's first publicly available LTE-service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo on the 14th of December 2009. LTE is a set of enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) which was introduced in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8. Much of 3GPP Release 8 focuses on adopting 4G mobile communications technology, including an all-IP flat networking architecture. On August 18, 2009, the European Commission announced it will invest a total of €18 million into researching the deployment of LTE and 4G candidate system LTE Advanced.[1]

While it is commonly seen as a mobile telephone or common carrier development, LTE is also endorsed by public safety agencies in the US[2] as the preferred technology for the new 700 MHz public-safety radio band. Agencies in some areas have filed for waivers[3] hoping to use the 700 MHz[4] spectrum with other technologies in advance of the adoption of a nationwide standard.



3GPP LTE는 미래 요구 사항을 극복하고 UMTS(Universal MobileTelecommnication Service) 휴대전화 단말기 표준을 향상시키기 위한 제 3세대 협력 프로젝트에서 주어진 명칭.

3GPP LTE는 현 이동통신 망에서 진화되는 기술로 전세계 무선 기술 표준화 단체 중 하나인 3GPP가 지난 2004년부터 본격적인 연구 착수.

Ericsson, Qualcomm, NTT Dokomo등 세계적으로 명성을 얻고 있는 통신 업체들이 워킹 그룹에 참여

4세대가 규정하는 서비스 속도인 이동 중 100Mbps, 정지시 1Gbps 구현으로 상용화 가능

3G LTE는 ALL IP를 백본으로 음성망과 데이터망을 하나로 통합하여, 현 이동통신 망에서 진화되는 점을 고려해 볼 때 4세대로 거론되는 기술 중 가장 유력한 후보기술

대역폭을 1.25MHz에서 20MHz까지 변화 가능하도록 한다.

주파수 대역을 효율적으로 사용하기 위하여, 무선 다중 접속 및 다중화 방식은 OFDM 고속 패킷 데이터 전송 방식은 MIMO, 그리고 스마트 안테나 기술을 기반으로 한다.

by 정보통신연구진흥원
LG shows first LTE chip for 4G phones

The 13mm square (0.51in) modem is small enough to fit in a cellphone but is capable of the theoretical peak speeds of LTE, which LG says tops out at 100Mbps downstream and at 50Mbps for uploads. A testbed Windows Mobile device has successfully reached bandwidth of 60Mbps down and 20Mbps up in a real-world example and should lead to slim cellphones with fast data performance, according to LG.
The speed is deemed a breakthrough and should result in phones with Internet performance rivaling better landline connections today. Assuming peak speeds, a 700MB video file would download in less than a minute; four 1080p HD movies could also stream simultaneously, the company says. Separately, LTE is also known to generate much lower latency than most existing forms of 3G and has been deemed more practical for two-way video calling and multiplayer online gaming.

LG doesn't outline its exact plans but expects the first phones based on LTE to ship in 2010 and also intends to launch a notebook adapter card for the standard in the future. The public availability of either will depend heavily on access to LTE networks, though these are expected to be relatively easy to deploy for existing 3G carriers and, in North America, are known to be available sometime in 2010 from carriers such as Bell, Telus and Verizon and will likely include AT&T and Rogers.
09:10 am EST, Tue December 9, 2008
by electronista in Korean
LTE chips get ready to roll

The specification for 4G wireless, or long-term-evolution (LTE), is expected to be finished this month, and product rollouts are anticipated for 2010 or 2011. If you are wondering what the status of the chips that will enable LTE is, well, the pipelines seem planned and chip designers have their heads down to deal with the unique challenges of LTE systems.

Despite these challenges, there seems to be a definite creative enthusiasm about the possibilities and new ways of looking at networks, as broadband mobile wireless gets ready to roll. And, in a stroke of compatibility genius that seems rare in our industry, many of the chips will also be compatible with mobile WiMAX, thanks to some similarities in the RF signaling. Regardless of whether or not the two competing standards, LTE and WiMAX converge, we are likely to see chips doing double duty.

So what are the most important issues for LTE that system designers should know about?

"LTE and WiMAX differ in their uplink multiple access approach, with WiMAX using OFDMA for the uplink, while LTE adopts a single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) approach. The crux of this decision by LTE designers is the technical challenges that broadband wireless presents to the device uplink's RF physical layer," notes Darcy Poulin, principal engineer RF systems & technical marketing, at SiGe Semiconductor.

Cecile Masse, senior RF systems engineer, RF group, analog devices (ADI), elaborates: "It is important to understand the nature of the modulated signal we are dealing with in LTE systems: its bandwidth, statistics, peak-to-average ratio, sensitivity to impairments like phase, amplitude distortion and the implications of using a scalable OFDM signal with sub-carriers modulated with different schemes or with partial usage of the available sub-carriers within a given channel bandwidth."

The deployment environment of LTE is also a concern, Masse noted. "Additionally, LTE is likely to be overlaid with existing services such as WCDMA and GSM. In these cases, system designers must take into consideration the implications of tolerance not only to the various LTE waveforms, but also to other in-band modulation types."

Rupert Baines, vice president of marketing at PicoChip, points out that important considerations for LTE go beyond the chip level. "It will be about small cells, not traditional big units. So small cells, like femtocells, are critical. And, at a genuine system level, driving intelligence towards the edge of the network will be essential. But because of all that, LTE represents an opportunity to sweep away a lot of the 'I wouldn't start from here' problems that have been inherent in the rather slow-moving, conservative world of network infrastructure."
12/01/2008 12:01 AM EST by Janine Love
LTE integrationLinear Technology has released the LT5557, a downconverting active mixer that covers the 400-MHz to 3.8-GHz bands

As with all mobile applications, integration will be critical for LTE chips, and chip designers are looking for innovative ways to combine functionality. PicoChip takes a software-defined approach and reports that it has integrated the complete LTE physical layer.

The company recently announced plans for an LTE basestation reference design--the PC8618 picocell and PC8608 femtocell platforms--that are being designed in conjunction with PicoChip's development and research partners, MimoOn and Hong Kong's ASTRI.

James Wong, a product marketing manager for Linear Technology, explains his team's approach to LTE integration, "We design performance to solve some of the most difficult problems facing LTE and basestation designers. For example, RF isolation in RF circuits is difficult to contain, and it's expensive to filter any undesirable RF artifacts. Our mixers (LT5557 and LT5579) have the RF transformers on-chip, facilitating exceptional isolation performance and eliminating external balun transformers."

Selection guide for LTE

For designers that need to select LTE chips, there are some key things to consider during the process. PicoChip's Baines cautions: "It's important to understand that the chips themselves are only a small part of any LTE solution. Just as important is the software to run on them. It is very important to differentiate between a chip you have to program from scratch, a chip with customizable library software, a chip with simple example code that is not actually suitable for a final implementation and a programmable chip with production-ready customizable code."

Brad Bannon, systems applications engineer, high speed converters group at Analog Devices (ADI), suggests that the most desirable specs to look for are high linearity (to meet spectrum quality and out-of-band emissions with the high peak-to-average ratio OFDM signal), low noise (for optimal radio link performance), gain flatness (for limited gain calibration when transmitting OFDMA signals up to maximum channel bandwidth), accurate power measurement (modulation agnostic, for optimum power transmission and high-efficiency design), and low power dissipation/low supply voltage.

To this list, Linear Technology's Wong adds spurious-free dynamic range (this limits the receiver's ability to resolve data integrity at low signal levels) and isolation/LO leakage. This last factor can cause out-of-band emissions exceeding the level required by local regulatory agencies, disqualifying a basestation from use in a given market. Baines points out that it is also important for the LTE device to be able to scale and adjust as the LTE specification changes.
12/01/2008 12:01 AM EST by EE Times by Janine Love